JavaScript Function and Class

1. Pain in the Ass

In Javascript since ES6, the Function, Class and object inheritance are things that confused me for a while. This article is a summary of my reading of Exploring ES6.

2. Function Concept

2.1. Three Roles of Function

A function is a callable entity in ES6 that play three roles.

  1. Real (non-method) function
    • Traditional functions created via function expressions/declarations.
    • Arrow functions created in an expression form.
    • Generator functions created via generator function expressions/declarations.
  2. Method
    • Methods created by method definition in object literals and class defintion.
    • Generator methods created by generator method definitions in object literal and class definition.
  3. Constructor
    • Classes created via class definitions.

The typeof(entity) results of all the callable entities are function. Arrow functions are made for non-method functions because they pick up this from their surrounding lexical scopes – so-called “lexical this”. In JavaScript, a new scope is created only when a new function is created.

2.2. Recommendations for Using Callable Entities

Prefer arrow functions as callable because of the lexical this and compact format. Use traditional function expression when there is an implicit this or the callback has multiple lines.

Avoid using IIFEs in ES6 by using a module or block with a let or const declaration. The only case to use IIFE is to produce a result via multiple statements and IIAF (immediately-invoked arrow function) can be used. In IIAF, the parentheses must be around arrow function. For example:

(() => {
    return 123
})();  // the parantheses are around arrow function and the expression ended with a semicolon. 

In ES6, use classes, not constructor functions, as constructor.

3. Use Function

3.1. Traditional Function Definition

// Function expression:
const fooFun = function (x) { ··· }

// Function declaration:
function fooFun (x) { ··· }

3.2. Method Definition

// Method definitions can appear inside object literals
const obj = {
    add(x, y) {
        return x + y;
    }, // comma is required

    sub(x, y) {
        return x - y;
    }, // comma is optional

3.3. Method Call

There are two ways to call methods:

  • dispatch: obj.someMethod(args)
  • direct:, arg0, arg1) or someFunct.apply(thisVAlue, argArray)

With ES6, it is rare to use the direct call syntax because of 1) the new spread operator, 2) Array.from(obj, callback) to convert an array-like object to an array, and 3) the new rest parameter declared via a triple dot.

4. Class Concept

4.1. Overview

ES6 classes are essentially traditional constructor functions. The typeof operation of a class returns “function”. A class can only be invoked via new, not via a functionall.

Unlike function, class definitions are not hoisted.

4.2. Class Definition

Class can be defined via expression or declaration. Only constructor method can call super(). Only class methods can access super property.

// declared
class A {}
class B extends A {}

// statement 
const C = class {}
let E = class D {}

There is no separator , between members of class definitions. It’s best a best practice to define only methods, but not data properties, in a class body. Defint instance properties in constructor().

5. Class, Function and Relationships Among Everything

Two key points to understand class inheritance or object chain are:

  1. [[Prototype]] (the legacy __proto__) refers to the parent object and define the inheritance relationships between two objects. A parent is the prototype of the child, as defined in the isPrototypeOf() method. Use Object.getPrototypeOf(obj) to get the parent object. The child has all properties of its parent.
  2. prototype is a normal property whose value is a special “shadown” object assoicated with the corresponding callable entity. Because a class is a function, it has this property. The prototype object of a class has all instance methods and a special constructor property that refers back to the paired class. All static methods are properties of the class itself. When a child class extends a parent class, the child class’s prototype also inherites (its [[Prototype]] or __proto__ refers) to the prototype of the parent class. All instances of a class inherites from the prototype of the class, therefore an instance has all properties defined in the prototype of the class.

As an example, when a class Foo is defined, a special object Foo.prototype is created with the special constructor method and other user-defined methods. It is the parent of all instances of the class Foo.

Object Relationships

5.1. Sample Inheritance Tree Code

We use the following code to define a simple inheritance tree.

class Foo {
    constructor(prop) {
        this.prop = prop;

    static staticMethod() {   // property of Foo
        return 'classy';

    prototypeMethod() {   // property of Foo.prototype
        return 'hello from prototype';

class Bar extends Foo {
    constructor(prop, extra) {
        this.extra = extra // must after super() to use this

let foo = new Foo()
let bar = new Bar()

5.2. The isPrototypeOf Inheritance Tree

We use “<=” to represent isPrototypeOf relationship. We can also use Object.getPrototypeOf() checking from bottom up. We have the following interitance tree:

Object.prototype <= Function.prototype <= Object / Function / Foo

Object.prototype <= Foo.prototype <= Bar.prototype

Foo <= Bar

Foo.prototype <= foo

Bar.prototype <= bar

And the inheritance is transitive, i.e., we have Foo.prototype <= bar. Or all the way to the root: Object.prototype <= bar.

The following statements are true and help to understand these concepts.

// Object.prototype is the root. It has a null prototype  
Object.getPrototypeOf(Object.prototype) === null

// everything inherits from the Object.prototype, this is the callable entity 

// Functions and classes inherits from Function.prototype, directly or via class inheritance 
Function.prototype.isPrototypeOf(Object)   // Object is a callable entity !

// all class prototypes inherit from Object.prototype, directly or via class prototype inheritance

// inheritance between classes

// an inheritance inherits its class's prototype

// all the way to the root

6. Inherited Properties and Inheritance

Given the above inheritance tree and the fact that a child inherits all properties of its parent, we have the following observation:

6.1. Object.prototype is the Root

Every object has the following properties generated from Object.getOwnPropertyNames(Object.prototype).

[ '__defineGetter__',
  '__proto__' ]

6.2. Function.prototype is the Callable Root

They have the following properties generated from Object.getOwnPropertyNames(Function.prototype).

[ 'length',
  'constructor' ]

It helps to explain that a callable entity (a function or a class) has call, bind and apply methods.

Because all classes and functions have a name property, this can be used to find an object’s class name via

6.3 Instance Inheritance

All instance inherits properties from the prototype of its class and the prototypes of ancestor classes till the root Object.prototype.

These properties are instance properties and methods.

6.4. Class Inheritance

Every class inherits static methods/properties from its parent and ancestor classes.

7. instanceof and typeof

7.1. The instanceof Algorithm

The instanceof algorithm for the statement objectOne instanceof objectTwo is as the following:

  1. objectTwo is a callable entity
  2. objectTwo.prototype is an ancestor of objectOne.

Javascript throws TypeError if the right hand side (RHS) objectTwo is not a callable entity. The algorithm first gets the objectTwo.prototype, then check if whether it is an ancestor of objectOne.

Because an callable entity’s prototype has a constructor pointing back to the callable entity, i.e., objectTwo.prototype.constructor === objectTwo, the second statement can be interpreted as: the objectTwo is the constructor of an ancestor of objectOne.

In a normal case, bar is an instance of Bar because Bar.prototype.isPrototypeOf(bar) is true. bar is also an instance of Foo because of Foo.prototype.isPrototypeOf(Bar.prototype). One level up, bar is an instance of Object because of Object.prototype.isPrototypeOf(Foo.prototype).

It’s interesting to check the Bar.prototype object. It is NOT an instance of Bar because Bar.prototype.isPrototypeOf(Bar.prototype) is a false expression. However, it is an instance of Foo, a somehow surprising result. The reason is that Foo.prototype.isPrototypeOf(Bar.prototype) is true.

There are special casses: Function and Object are instances of each other, i.e., the following statements are true.

Function instanceof Function
Object instanceof Function
Function instanceof Object 
Object instanceof Object

8. The typeof Operator

As explained in this stackoverflow article, use typeof for simple buildin types such as string, true, 99.99, {}. It only reports top level types such as object, number, boolean, string, and function.

Special cases for typeof operator:

typeof null === 'object'
typeof Function === 'function'
typeof undefined === 'undefined'
typeof NaN === 'number'
typeof 'abc' === 'string'
typeof false === 'boolean'

typeof Object === 'function'
typeof Boolean === 'function'
typeof String === 'function'
typeof (new String('abc'))  === 'object'

9. The constructor Hierarchy

Every object inherits the constructor property from Object.prototype. The constructor has a special meaning when determine the result of the instanceof operator.

Let “<=” represents the meaning of “is the constructor of” relationship, then we have:

Function <= Function, i.e., the Function is the constrctor of itself.

Function <= Function.prototype, i.e., the Function is the constructor of its prototype.

Function <= Object <= Object.prototype

Function <= Foo <= Foo.prototype / foo

Function <= Bar <= Bar.prototype / bar

The constructor hierarchy helps to explain the “construction” of all callable entities including functions and classes.

The following statement:

function myFunction() {}
class myKlass {}

can be thought (might be wrong) as the following:

myFunction = new Function()
myKlass = new Function()

It alo helps to explain that the following expressions having a result of ‘function’

typeof Object
typeof Function
typeof Function.prototype
typeof Foo
typeof Bar
Written on November 27, 2016