GraphQL Explained

GraphQL is a query language created by Facebook in 2012. It describes the schema and operations of a hierarchical data model for client-server applications. It is a specification lanuaged describing the type system and interactions between a server application and its clients. It publishes server capabilities with type valication and let client specify the returned data at field-level granularity. GraphQL is rather new and good documents are desired. Here we try to understand and summary the concepts and usage patterns of GraphQL.

1. Query Document

A GraphQL query request string is called a “document” in GraphQL terms. A document has a list of operation definitions or fragment definitions.

1.1. Operation Definition

There are two types of operations: query and mutation. A query is a read-only fetch whil a mutation is a write followed by a fetch. An operation is represented by an operations name and a selection set. The operation type and name are optional only if a document has one query operation and contains no variables and no directives. An opertion has the following parts (defined in

  • Opertion Type: query or mutation
  • Operation Name: a string name
  • Vairable Definition (optional): a list of variables whose values are provided in a variables section in JSON format.
  • Directives (optional): @skip and @include with arguments.
  • Selection Set: a list of selections.

1.2. Selection

A selection can be a field, a fragment spread or an inline fragement.

A field has the following parts:

  • alias (optional): an alias name for a field separated by a :.
  • name: a field name.
  • arguments: an unordered list of name: value pair separated by a ,. An argument can have default value.
  • directives (optional): directive instruction.
  • nested selections: nested fields.

1.3. Fragments

Fragments are reusable selections. It has a type condition and only return values when concrete type of the object mathches its type. It has a syntax of fragment name on type selection-set.

1.4. Input Values

Field and directive arguments take input values that can be literal primitives or input objects. The literal values can be any of int, float, boolean (true or false), string (double quoted), null, enum value as unquoted names (recommend all caps), list value in [value1, value2], object value as {name1: value1, name2: value2}

1.5. Input Types

It is convenient to combine query variables into an input type. An input type is a list of anouther input type, or a non-null variant of other input type. a Type ! means a non-null type.

2. Types

There are eight kinds of types in GraphQL.

2.1. Primitive Types

The basic type constructors are scalar types and the enum type.

GraphQL has five scalar types: int, float, string, boolean, and ID. An ID, usually a number / a base64 value / a UUID string etc., represents a unique identifier that can be serialized as string.

An enum type is a finite set of names usually in a form of an all-cap string.

2.2. Object, Interface and Union

An object a a set of fields that can have different types. Objects implement interfaces that define a set of fields. A union type defines a list of possible types.

2.3. Non-null and Lists

A type can be non-null type. A list type has a list of values. Non-null types and list types are wrapping types while others are base types.

2.4. Input Type

Finally, the special input object type defines a type for operation input because interface and unions are not supported as input variable types. GraphQL uses input object to show the allowed types in input variables.

3. Schema

A GraphQL schema has two initial types: a Query type and an optional Mutation type that serves as the entry points of a GraphQL operation. Both are regular object types that contains other types.

All types and fields in an operation are validated by GraphQL Servers.

4. Execution

Each field on an operation is backed by a function called the resolver to produce the result value. If a field produces a scalar value, then the execution completes. Otherwise, nested fields will be excuted until every field is resolved.

A resolver function receives three arguments:

  • obj: the previous object, null for root object field.
  • args: the arguments provided in the field.
  • context: an enviornment value holds contextual information such as current user or database connection.

If a resolve is not provided for a field, the property of the same name of the previous object is used as the return value.

When all fields are resolved, the reulting value is stored in a key-value map and is usally sent as a JSON string to a client.

Written on March 1, 2017